was Second Wave Composition (Answers)
1. The second wave was divided into three groups. One was
tasked to attack Kaneohe, the rest Pearl Harbor proper. The separate sections
arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously, from several directions.
Ninety minutes after it began, the attack was over. 2,386 Americans died (55
were civilians, most killed by unexploded American anti-aircraft shells landing
in civilian areas), a further 1,139 wounded. Eighteen ships were sunk, including
2. Of the American fatalities, nearly half of the total
were due to the explosion of USS Arizona's forward magazine after it was
hit by a modified 16 inch shell.
3. Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire forward, Nevada
attempted to exit the harbor. She was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she
got under way, sustaining more hits from 250-pound bombs as she was deliberately
beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance.
4. USS California was hit by two bombs and two
torpedoes. The crew might have kept her afloat, but were ordered to abandon ship
just as they were raising power for the pumps.
5. Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia
drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was. The
disarmed target ship USS Utah was holed twice by torpedoes. USS West
Virginia was hit by seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away her rudder.
USS Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above her belt
armor, which caused her to capsize. USS Maryland was hit by two of the
converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage.
6. Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships (the
largest vessels present), they did not ignore other targets. The light cruiser
USS Helena was torpedoed, and the concussion from the blast capsized the
neighboring minelayer USS Oglala. Two destroyers in dry dock were
destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers. The leaking fuel caught
fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil
rise, and so the ships were burned out. The light cruiser USS Raleigh was
holed by a torpedo. The light cruiser USS Honolulu was damaged but
remained in service. The destroyer USS Cassin capsized, and destroyer USS
Downes was heavily damaged. The repair vessel USS Vestal, moored
alongside Arizona, was heavily damaged and beached. The seaplane tender
USS Curtiss was also damaged. USS Shaw was badly damaged when two
bombs penetrated her forward magazine.
7. Of the 402 American aircraft in Hawaii, 188 were
destroyed and 159 damaged, 155 of them on the ground. Almost none were actually
ready to take off to defend the base. Of 33 PBYs in Hawaii, 24 were destroyed,
and six others damaged beyond repair. (The three on patrol returned undamaged.)
Friendly fire brought down several U.S. planes on top of that, including some
from an inbound flight from USS Enterprise. Japanese attacks on barracks
killed additional personnel.
8. Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were
killed in the action. Of Japan's 414 available planes, 29 were lost during the
battle (nine in the first attack wave, 20 in the second), with another 74
damaged by antiaircraft fire from the ground.