Battle of the Bulge II
(December 16, 1944 - January 25,
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Battle of the Bulge (December 16, 1944 - January 25, 1945)
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After a brief battle the Americans surrendered. They were disarmed
and, with some other Americans captured earlier (approximately 150
men), sent to stand in a field near the crossroads where most were
shot. It is not known what caused the shooting and there is no
record of an SS officer giving an execution order.
What did the
event become known as?
2) Another, much smaller massacre was committed in Wereth,
Belgium, approximately a thousand yards northeast of Saint-Vith,
on 17 December 1944. Eleven African-American soldiers, after
surrendering, were tortured and then shot by men of 1. SS Panzer
Division, belonging to Kampfgruppe Hansen. The identity of
the murderers remains unknown, and the perpetrators were never
punished for this crime.
3) By December 23, as the Germans shattered their flanks, the
defenders' position became untenable, and U.S. troops were
ordered to retreat west of the Salm River. As the German plan
called for the capture of St. Vith, the prolonged action in and
around it presented a major blow to their timetable.
What was the
timetable of St. Vith's capture?
18:00 on December 17
18:00 on December 19
18:00 on December 21
4) On December 19, General Dwight Eisenhower asked General
George Patton how long it would take to turn his Third Army
(located in northeastern France) north to counterattack. He said
he could attack with two divisions within 48 hours, to the
disbelief of the other generals present. Before he had gone to the
meeting, however, Patton had ordered his staff to prepare three
contingency plans for a northward turn in at least corps strength.
By the time Eisenhower asked him how long it would take, the
movement was already underway.
5) The furthest westward penetration made by the German attack
was by the 2nd Panzer Division of the Fifth Panzer Army.
December 24, how close did the German attack come to the Meuse
Less than ten miles
Less than twenty miles
About thirty miles
6) On December 23, the weather conditions started improving,
allowing the Allied air forces to attack. T hey launched
devastating bombing raids on the German supply points in their
rear, and P-47 Thunderbolts started attacking the German troops on
7) The Germans had outrun their supply lines, and shortages of
fuel and ammunition were becoming critical. Up to this point the
German losses had been light, notably in armor, which was almost
untouched with the exception of Peiper's losses.
What was the
8) On January 1, in an attempt to keep the offensive going, the
Germans launched two new operations. At 09:15, the Luftwaffe
launched Operation Baseplate (Unternehmen Bodenplatte), a
major campaign against Allied airfields in the Low Countries. Hundreds of planes attacked Allied airfields. The Luftwaffe
lost 277 planes, 62 to Allied fighters and 172 mostly because of
an unexpectedly high number of Allied flak guns, set up to protect
against German V-1 flying bomb attacks, but also by friendly fire
from the German flak guns that were uninformed of the pending
large-scale German air operation. While the Allies recovered from
their losses in just days, the operation left the Luftwaffe
weak and ineffective.
How many allied aircraft were destroyed or
9) On January 1, German Army Group G and Army Group Upper Rhine
launched a major offensive against the thinly stretched, 70 mile
line of the Seventh U.S. Army. This offensive was the last major
German offensive of the war on the Western Front.
What was the
operation known as?
Operation North Wind
Operation West Wind
Operation North Sea
10) When did Hitler agreed to withdraw forces from the
Ardennes, including the SS Panzer divisions, thus ending
all offensive operations?
January 7, 1945
January 14, 1945
January 21, 1945