1. Santa Fe was also the trailhead for the ��El Camino Real� (the King�s
Highway), a major trade route which carried American manufactured goods
southward deep into Mexico and returned silver, furs, and mules northward (not
to be confused with another �Camino Real� which connected the missions in
California). A branch also ran eastward near the Gulf (also called the Old San
Antonio Road). Santa Fe also connected to California via the Old Spanish Trail.
2. The Mexican government began to attract Americans to the Texas area with
3. Stephen F. Austin, became an �empresario�, receiving contracts from
the Mexican officials to bring in immigrants. In doing so, he also became the de
facto political and military commander of the area.
4. Fredonia was the name of a proposed republic in Texas, in the region near
Nacogdoches where Haden Edwards had a land grant.
5. William Travis, leading the �war party�, advocated for independence
from Mexico, while the �peace party� led by Austin attempted to get more
autonomy within the current relationship.
6. When Mexican president Santa Anna shifted alliances and joined the
conservative Centralist party, he declared himself dictator and ordered soldiers
into Texas to curtail new immigration and unrest.
7. Immigration continued with 30,000 Americans (with 3,000 slaves) arrived in
1835. A series of battles, including at the Alamo, at Goliad, and at the San
Jacinto River, led to independence and the establishment of the Republic of
Texas in 1836.
8. The U.S. Congress, however, refused to annex Texas, stalemated by
contentious arguments over slavery and regional power. Texas remained an
independent country, led by Sam Houston until it became the 28th state in 1845.
9. Mexico viewed the establishment of the statehood of Texas as a hostile
act, helping to precipitate the Mexican War.