1. True. First, the federal government acquired western territory from other
nations or native tribes by treaty; then it sent surveyors and explorers to map
and document the land. Next, it ordered federal troops to clear out and subdue
the resisting natives. Finally, it had bureaucracies manage the land, such as
the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Land Office, the U.S. Geological Survey, and
the Forest Service.
2. False. The process was not a smooth one. Indian resistance, sectionalism,
and racism forced some pauses in the process of westward settlement.
Nonetheless, by the end of the 19th century, in the process of conquering and
managing the West, the federal government amassed great size, power, and
influence in national affairs.
3. False. Zebulon Pike led a party in 1805-6, under the orders of General
James Wilkinson, commander of the western American army. Their mission was to
find the head waters of the Mississippi (which turned out to be Lake Itasca, and
not Leech Lake as Pike concluded).
4. True. Major Stephen H. Long led the Yellowstone and Missouri expeditions
of 1819-1820, but his categorizing of the Great Plains as arid and useless led
to the region getting a bad reputation as the �Great American Desert�, which
discouraged settlement in that area for several decades.
5. False. Thomas Nuthall was the most traveled Western naturalist before
1840, unfortunately most of his documentation and specimens were lost.
6. True. Artist George Catlin traveled up the Missouri as far as present-day
North Dakota, producing accurate paintings of American Indian culture.
7. False. In 1820, John James Audubon traveled about the Mississippi Basin
collecting specimens and making sketches for his monumental books Birds of
America and The Viviparous Quadrupeds of North America, classic works
of naturalist art.
8. True. By 1840, the discoveries of explorers, naturalists, and mountain men
had produced maps showing the rough outlines of the entire West to the Pacific