Battle of Fort Necessity
(July 3, 1754)
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The Battle of the Great Meadows, also known as the Battle of Fort
Necessity was a battle of the French and Indian War fought on July 3, 1754
near present-day Uniontown, Pennsylvania. It, along with the Battle of
Jumonville Glen, are considered the opening shots of the French and Indian
War which would spread to the Old World and become the Seven Years' War.
It marked George Washington's only military surrender.
2. The battle was the culmination of years of boundary disputes between
the British and French Empires in North America. Principal among the
disputed territories was the Ohio Country, an area that includes portions
of the present American states? Beside Ohio, what is NOT one of the Ohio
- West Virginia
3. Virginia Militia officer George Washington and 159 men to aid a
building party sent to construct a fort at the Forks of the Ohio River
(present Pittsburgh), but the party was surrounded and forced to return to
Virginia before Washington arrived. What was the name of the fort the
French built at the fork?
- Fort Pitt
- Fort Duquesne
- Fort du Jumon
4. Washington was sent new orders to construct a wagon road from Wills
Creek into the Ohio Country and await reinforcements. What is the present
location of Wills Creek?
- Hancock, Maryland
- Cumberland, Maryland
- Sharpsburg, Maryland
5. On May 24, 1754, Washington's party arrived at a marshy clearing
at the junction of two streams in what is now Upper Moreland Township,
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania called the Great Meadows. They set up camp
at the site and explored possible water routes to the Forks of the Ohio
while awaiting reinforcements.
6. The arrival of 100 British reinforcements under Captain James Mackay
on June 14 provided as much trouble as relief. Although Mackay brought
reinforcements and much needed supplies, Mackay and Washington immediately
entered into an argument over command of the garrison. Although Mackay was
only a captain, his commission as an officer in the British army
technically took precedence over Washington's militia rank of Lt.
7. The bulk of the British garrison had been sent to
plantation. Washington decided that this outpost was indefensible and
gathered all his remaining strength at Fort Necessity. The Gist's
Plantation is near what present-day site?
- Mount Braddock, Pennsylvania
- Millersburg, Pennsylvania
- Williamsburg, Pennsylvania
8. The expedition against Fort Necessity was led by Captain Louis
Coulon de Villiers, who was the brother of the slain Ensign Joseph Coulon
de Jumonville. Captain de Villiers was outraged by the death of his
brother, which he considered to be a cold-blooded murder. He was further
enraged when he passed Jumonville Glen and discovered that the British had
failed to bury the bodies of the slain French soldiers.
9. At about 11:00 on July 3, the French column arrived at the Great
Meadows and immediately began a vigorous attack. Washington's
misjudgment of the Great Meadows site quickly proved disastrous. When did
Washington ask the French for terms of surrender?
- 18:00 (6 PM)
- 20:00 (8 PM)
- 24:00 (Midnight)
10. What "admission" in the surrender terms, would later be
used as propaganda against the British and nearly ruined Washington's
- Building Fort Necessity
- Joseph Coulon de Jumonville death
- Building the road