Battle of Gettysburg
First Day: Union Retreat
What do you know about Battle of Gettysburg:
Alan's U.S. Civil War History Made Easy Quiz.
"Check Your Answers" at the end of
July 1, 1863, Union Retreat - The
sequence of retreating units remains unclear. I Corps and XI
Corps cast blame on the other. There are three main versions of
1) The first, most prevalent, version was
that the fiasco on Blocher's Knoll triggers a collapse that ran
counterclockwise around the line.
2) The second was that Barlow's line, train
tracks, Oak Hill and the Seminary defense collapsed at about the
3) The third was that Gamble's division in
the center gave way and that spread both left and right.
4) July 1, 1863 Union
Retreat - Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard told Maj. Gen.
George G. Meade that his Corps was forced to retreat only
because the I Corps collapses first on his flank, which may have
reduced his embarrassment but is unappreciated by I Corps.
Who's career was ruined by Howard's story?
- Maj. Gen. Henry Heth
- Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill
- Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday
- Brig. Gen. James H. Lane
5) July 1, 1863 Union
Retreat - The brigades on Seminary Ridge are said to
move deliberately and slowly, keeping in control, although Col.
Wainwright's artillery is not informed of the order to retreat
and found themselves alone. When Wainwright realizes his
situation, he orders his gun crews to withdraw at a walk, not
wishing to panic the infantry and start a rout. As pressure
eventually increases, Wainwright orders his 17 remaining guns to
gallop down Chambersburg Street, three abreast.
6) July 1, 1863 Union
Who fails to commit any of his reserves to the
pursuit of the Seminary defenders, a great missed opportunity.
- John Hill
- A.P. Hill
- J.E.B. Stuart
- Isaac R. Trimble
7) July 1, 1863 Union
Retreat - Near the railroad cut, Junius Daniel's
Brigade renews their assault, and almost 500 Union soldiers
surrender and are taken prisoner. Paul's Brigade, under attack
by Dodson Ramseur, becomes seriously isolated and Gen. John C.
Robinson orders it to withdraw. He orders a regiment to hold its
position "at any cost" as a rear guard against the enemy
pursuit. The regiment, commanded by Col. Charles Tilden, returns
to the stone wall on the Mummasburg Road, and their fierce fire
gives sufficient time for the rest of the brigade to escape,
which they do, in considerably more disarray than those from the
Seminary. The regiment starts the day with 298 men, but at the
end of this holding action there are only 35 survivors.
What is the regiment?
- 16th New York
- 16th Ohio
- 16th Maine
- 16th Indiana
8) July 1, 1863 Union
Retreat - For the XI Corps, it is a sad reminder of
their retreat at Chancellorsville in May. Under heavy pursuit by
Hays and Avery, they clogg the streets of the town; no one in
the corps have planned routes for this contingency. Hand-to-hand
fighting brakes out in various places. Parts of the corps
conduct an organized fighting retreat, such as Col. Charles
Coster's stand in the brickyard. The private citizens of
Gettysburg panic amidst the turmoil, and artillery shells
bursting overhead and fleeing refugees added to the congestion.
Some soldiers seek to avoid capture by hiding in basements and
in fenced backyards.
Who was one such person who
climbs a fence and hides behind a woodpile in the kitchen garden
of the Garlach family for the rest of the three-day battle.
- George S. Greene
- Moran Raymond
- Ira Hayes
- Alexander Schimmelfennig
9) July 1, 1863, Union Retreat
- At midday, Gen. Meade is nine miles south of
Gettysburg when he hears that Reynolds has been killed. He
immediately dispatched his commander of the II Corps and his
most trusted subordinate, to the scene with orders to take
command of the field and to determine whether Gettysburg was an
appropriate place for a major battle.
Who was the II
- Winfield Scott Hancock
- John C. Hancock
- John Sedgwick
- Daniel E. Sickles
10) July 1, 1863 Union
Retreat - The new field commander says, "I think this
the strongest position by nature upon which to fight a battle
that I ever saw." Chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac,
inspects the ground and agrees with the new commander.
Who is the chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac?
- Joshua L. Chamberlain
- George A. Custer
- Abner Doubleday
- Gouverneur K. Warren