Mixing ingredients forcefully with a spoon, fork, wire whisk, hand
beater or electric mixer until the ingredients are smooth and
Mixing ingredients with a spoon, wire whisk or rubber scraper until
very smooth and uniform. Depending on the job, you may use a blender
or food processor.
a liquid until bubbles rise continuously and break on the surface
and steam is given off. For a rolling boil, the bubbles form rapidly
and will not stop forming even when you stir the liquid.
Combining ingredients lightly while preventing loss of air by using
two motions: Using a rubber spatula, first cut down vertically
through the mixture. Next, slide the spatula across the bottom of
the bowl and up the side, turning the mixture over. Repeat these
motions after rotating the bowl one-fourth turn with each series of
Rubbing the inside surface of a pan with solid shortening, using a
pastry brush, wax paper or paper towels, to prevent food from
sticking during baking. Nonstick cooking spray may also be used. Do
not use butter or margarine (especially in a baked recipe) because
sticking may occur.
Grease and Flour:
To rub the inside surface of a pan with solid shortening before
dusting it with flour. This prevents food from sticking during
baking. After flouring the pan, turn it upside down, tapping the
bottom to remove excess flour. If the batter to be added to the pan
is chocolate, cocoa may be used in place of flour to add a rich
brown coating to the final product.
Combining ingredients in any way that distributes them evenly. You
can do this by using a hand utensil or an electric mixer.
Preheat the Oven:
Turning the oven controls to the desired temperature, allowing the
oven to heat thoroughly before adding food. Heating takes about 10
Allowing cold food, such as butter, margarine or cream cheese, to
stand at room temperature until no longer hard. Generally, this will
take 30 to 60 minutes.
ingredients with a circular or “figure 8” motion until they are
of a uniform consistency.
Beat ingredients with a wire whisk, hand rotary beater or electric
mixer to add air and increase volume until ingredients are light and
fluffy, such as with whipping cream or egg whites.