Born: March 15, 1767, Waxhaws border region between The
Carolinas (exact location disputed)
Died: June 8, 1845 (age
78), Nashville, Tennessee
Buried: The Hermitage, Nashville,
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the
United States (1829–1837). Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson
was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians
at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814), and the British at the
Battle of New Orleans (1815). A polarizing figure who dominated
the Second Party System in the 1820s and 1830s, as president he
dismantled the Second Bank of the United States and initiated
forced relocation and resettlement of American Indian tribes
from the Southeast to west of the Mississippi River with the
Indian Removal Act (1830). His enthusiastic followers created
the modern Democratic Party. The 1830–1850 period later became
known as the era of Jacksonian democracy.
nicknamed Old Hickory because of his toughness and aggressive
personality; he fought in duels, some fatal to his opponents. He
was a wealthy slaveholder. He fought politically against what he
denounced as a closed, undemocratic aristocracy, adding to his
appeal to common citizens. He expanded the spoils system during
his presidency to strengthen his political base.
president in 1828, Jackson supported a small and limited federal
government. He strengthened the power of the presidency, which
he saw as spokesman for the entire population, as opposed to
Congressmen from a specific small district. He was supportive of
states' rights, but during the Nullification Crisis, declared
that states do not have the right to nullify federal laws.
Strongly against the Second Bank of the United States, he vetoed
the renewal of its charter and ensured its collapse.
Whigs and moralists denounced his aggressive enforcement of the
Indian Removal Act, which resulted in the forced relocation of
thousands of American Indians to Indian Territory (now
Oklahoma). Historians acknowledge his protection of popular
democracy and individual liberty for American citizens, but
criticize his support for slavery and his role in Indian
He died at The Hermitage on June 8, 1845, at the
age of 78, of chronic tuberculosis, dropsy, and heart failure.